Document Type : Primary Research paper
Ph.D. Research Scholar, Department of Geography, M. D. University, Rohtak, Haryana, India
Professor, Department of Geography, M. D. University, Rohtak, Haryana, India
Purpose – To study the consequence of depleting groundwater resources on the cost of cultivation and to study the comparative analysis of the profitability of rice-wheat cultivation in different irrigation systems.
Design/methodology/approach – The data are collected by simple random sampling method from 300 sample farming households, drawn from three villages of Karnal district are analyzed and presented in this paper.
Findings – The data indicated that the maximum cost is incurred by rice crops than wheat crops in all irrigation systems. The main reason for this comparative difference in Cost of cultivation is basically due to the higher hired average cost of irrigation. It is noticed here that the cost of hired irrigation is increasing with groundwater depletion. Rice and wheat crop productivity has stabilized, and farm incomes are reported to be stagnant and insufficient for a decent living. It is noticed here that the proportion of fertilizers, insecticides, and hired laborers applications are decreased with groundwater depletion, but the proportion of tubewell irrigation applications are increased with groundwater depletion for both crops rice and wheat. It is observed that the canal-dependent irrigation system has performed better net returns as compared to the overexploited groundwater irrigation system.
Social implications – The rise in the cost of cultivation and the decline in farmers' net income are significant issues confronting present-day agriculture in Haryana. Degradation of land and depletion of water resources has led to rising discontent among the farming community due to their failure to get aspired farm incomes. The gap in income between small and large farmers is increased day by day. The resource-poor (small) farmers are exploited by resource-rich (large) farmers.
Originality/value – This is the first paper to study the agriculture profitability across rice-wheat cultivation in Haryana state (Karnal district) across different irrigation systems.