Flowering biology of Acorus calamus L. growing in Tashkent

Document Type : Primary Research paper

Authors

1 Tashkent State Agrarian University, Faculty of fruit and grapes, Tashkent, Uzbekistan;

2 Academic Lyceum of the Tashkent State Agrarian University, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Abstract

This article describes the flowering biology of Acorus calamus L. grown in Tashkent. The research was conducted on plants planted on the experimental plot of Tashkent State Agrarian University in 2017-2019. Object of study - Acorus calamus L. – is hygrophytic plant, growing along streams and rivers, on the edges of rice fields and other wetlands. During the study of the flowering process of the plant Acorus calamus, it was found that the opening of the buds of the plant took place mainly from 8ºº to 12lab in the morning. In Tashkent conditions, the flowering of Acorus calamus began earlier than in its natural range. The onset of flowering coincided with different times, depending on climatic conditions of each year. The generative organs of the plant are formed in the leaf axils of the rhizomes, and each plant produces up to 1-3 Spadix. Spadix grow up to 6.2-12 cm in length and 0.9-1.2 cm in diameter. The flowers are densely arranged in a cylindrical Spadix, the opened buds are small, inconspicuous, greenish-yellow, bisexual. The opening of the flowers begins at the bottom of the inflorescence. The duration of flowering inflorescences depends on the number of flowers in them. Inflorescences with more flowers (500-585) bloom longer (18-26 days), inflorescences with fewer flowers (390-480) bloom shorter (12-15 days). The opening of the flowers is of the acropetal type. On the first day, 1 or 2 flowers bloom in conditions of low temperature (9-10℃). As the temperature begins to rise (13-17℃), the opening of the flowers also increases. During a three-year study, it was noted that Acorus calamus does not produce seeds in Tashkent. During our subsequent experiments, it was found that the dust grains developed in the plants were sterile. The results of many years of observations have shown that Acorus calamus does not produce seeds mainly due to the influence of biotic and abiotic factors.

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