Document Type : Primary Research paper
Students, Dept. of Civil Engineering, J.C.O.E.T., Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India
Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, J.C.O.E.T.,Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India
Now a days, many landslides are occuring in hilly areas caused by rainfall, snowmelt, changes in water level, stream errosion, changes in ground water, earthquakes, volcanic activity,disturbance by human activities, or any combination of these factors. Landslides are among the most important and frequent natural calamites that cause severe socio-economic and human losses. After earthquake landslides are responsible for the greatest number of casualties and the largest amount of damage to man-made structures.
In landslide areas, after assessing the risk level, the obligatory questions from communities, civil protection managers, and researchers are: What can we do? What should we do? What must we do? There are different strategies to reduce the vulnerability and risk: (a) Increasing the knowledge of the population, (b) Establishing an early warning system, and (c) selecting and constructing structures.
The aim of this chapter is to present the methodology to select stabilizing construction works to avoid a landslide, through the “valuation factors,” which are parameters to assess the intrinsic and trigger instability factors (morphology, geology, hydrogeology, vegetation, rainfall, earthquake, erosion, human activity, etc.). The valuation factors are presented in graphs, equations, and tables; based upon them, the different construction works are selected, including (a) geometric adjusting for reducing destabilizing forces; (b) reinforcement elements, anchors, and pile barriers to increase the resistive forces; (c) drainage for eliminating surface runoff water or lowering the hydrostatic pressure; (d) retaining walls to support the horizontal pressure; and (e) surface protection to prevent rock falls and reduce erosion and infiltration.
This paper describe history, effects, causes, stabilization measures and effectiveness of these measures.