Finite Element Analysis of a Butt Welded Joint

Document Type : Primary Research paper

Authors

1 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Nehru Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nehru Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu

Abstract

Welding-induced residual stresses and distortion can play a very important role in the reliable design of
welded joints and welded structures. In fusion welding, a weldment is locally heated by the welding heat source.
Due to the non-uniform temperature distribution during the thermal cycle, incompatible strains lead to thermal
stresses. These incompatible strains due to dimensional changes associated with solidification of the weld mental
(WM), metallurgical transformations, and plastic deformation, are the sources of residual stresses and
distortion.However, the welding process itself is a very complex phenomenon, which has not been fully understood,
so that the distribution and magnitude of residual stress is not readily available from the literature. It is therefore,
necessary to develop a model for the welding process, which would produces not only qualitative but also
quantitative information on residual stresses.In this work, a finite element simulation of the welding process yielding
the welding-induced residual stresses in a butt-welded plate is presented. The model was validated by compression
of its predictions with numerical simulations. Parametric studies were carried out on the validated model to assess
the effects of the amount of heat input, the yield strength of the material as well as the temperature-dependence of
material properties on the final residual stresses. Based on these studies, a simplified modeling procedure of
reasonable accuracy was proposed