Gut peptides: Gastrin Releasing Peptide, Cholecystokinin, and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in the Regulation of Food Intake and Satiety: Review Article

Document Type : Primary Research paper


1 Department of Anatomy and Histology, Veterinary Medicine College, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.

2 Department of Pathology and Poultry disease, Veterinary Medicine College, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.

3 Department of Physiology, Pharmacology and Biochemistry, Veterinary Medicine College, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.


Obesity is an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. This
imbalance is manifested clinically by accumulation of fat primarily in the abdomen, in
cases of males, and in the hips, in cases of females. In addition, this world-wide epidemic
may lead to several serious, and sometimes deadly, health problems e.g., type 2 diabetes,
Cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, gall
bladder disease, sleep apnea and respiratory, cancer and cachexia, irregular menstrual
cycles and hormonal imbalances. Gastrin-releasing peptide is a hormonepeptide secreted
by gastric and brain neurons, and stimulates gastrin release and regulates gastric acid
secretion Gastrin-releasing peptide is a peptide that is structurally similar to the amphibian
peptide bombesin (Bn). Bn was isolated from the skin of the fire-bellied toad, Bombina
bombina, and Bombina variegate Bombesin-like peptides, discovered in a variety of
amphibian skin secretions, have been shown to have a variety of biological functions,
including stimulation contraction of smooth muscle and regular of intake food. The shortterm
control of food intake regulates individual meal size (MS) and the time between two
consecutive meals, also known as intermeal interval (IMI). This control is regulated by
satiety peptides / hormones secreted by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Such peptides /
hormones may include gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), which is secreted by the enteric
neurons of the stomach and small intestine, cholecystokinin (CCK), which is secreted by
the I cells of the small and the large intestine, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which is
secreted by the L cells of the large intestine.