Review article: Streptomyces life cycle and cluster genes activation

Document Type : Primary Research paper


Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Iraq


Streptomyces is the go-to bacterium for making bioactive compounds. Some 70% of all antibiotics and numerous other pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, and food products are produced by Streptomyces. The development of resistance to antibiotics highlights the urgent need for alternative treatments. Secondary metabolite production is dependent on differentiation, however differentiation as a stimulant for antibiotic production has yet to be discovered. This genus is still crucial since it has several cryptic secondary metabolite pathways not expressed in the lab and weak and quiet antibioticproducing genes not expressed without environmental circumstances, notably biological elicitor. I discuss differentiation-based approaches to increasing secondary metabolite production and stimulating cryptic pathways for antibiotic manufacture.